Gestational hypertension



gestational hypertension or pregnancy induced hypertension is the development of new hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks gestation without the presence of protein in the urine or other signs of preeclampsia hypertension is defined as greater than 140 ninetieths millimeters Hg conditions there exist several hypertensive states of pregnancy gestational hypertension gestational hypertension is usually defined as having a blood pressure higher than 140/90 measured on two separate occasions more than six hours apart without the presence of protein in the urine and diagnosed after 20 weeks of gestation preeclampsia preeclampsia is gestational hypertension plus proteinuria severe preeclampsia involves a blood pressure greater than 160 / 110 with additional medical signs and symptoms h-e-l-l-o syndrome is a type of preeclampsia it is a combination of three medical conditions hemolytic anemia elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count eclampsia this is when tonic clonic seizures appear in a pregnant woman with high blood pressure and proteinuria preeclampsia and eclampsia are sometimes treated as components of a common syndrome risk factors maternal causes obesity age 35 years or more past history of d-m hypertension and renal diseases adolescent pregnancy new paternity thrombophilia is having donated a kidney pregnancy multiple gestation placental abnormalities one hyper placin ptosis excessive exposure to chorionic villi to placental ischemia family history family history of preeclampsia african-american race treatment there is no specific treatment but is monitored closely to rapidly identify preeclampsia and it's life-threatening complications drug treatment options are limited as many antihypertensives may negatively affect the fetus Phil dapper hydralazine and late Talal are most commonly used for severe pregnancy hypertension the fetus is at increased risk for a variety of life-threatening conditions including pulmonary hypoplasia if the dangerous complications appear after the fetus has reached a point of viability even though still immature then an early delivery may be warranted to save the lives of both mother and baby an appropriate plan for labor and delivery includes selection of a hospital with provisions for advanced life support of newborn babies evolutionary considerations equals humans equals gestational hypertension is one of the most common disorders seen in human pregnancies they're relatively benign on its own in roughly half of the cases of gestational hypertension the disorder progresses into preeclampsia a dangerous condition that can prove fatal to expectant mothers however gestational hypertension is a condition that is fairly rare to see in other animals for years it has been the belief of the scientific community that gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were relatively unique to humans although there has been some recent evidence that other primates can also suffer from similar conditions will be at due to different underlying mechanisms the underlying cause of gestational hypertension in humans is commonly believed to be an improperly implanted placenta humans have evolved to have a very invasive placenta to facilitate better oxygen transferred from the mother to the fetus to support the growth of its large brain equals origins of the placenta equals the origins of gestational hypertension may lie with the development of human sir Johan registered trademark Homo Coryell placenta ahem oh Coryell placenta optimizes the amount of oxygen and nutrients that can be absorbed into the fetal blood supply while at the same time ensuring rapid diffusion of wastes away from the fetus this Hema Coryell placenta differs from lower primates a euro on registered trademark capital EO Coryell placenta in the way that it allows the fetal tissues to interact directly with the MU there are on registered trademark the Hema Coryell percent are thereby promotes more rapid diffusion to and from the fetal blood supply in animals with epital EO Coriolis and ice such as horses and pigs the greatest resistance to maternal blood flow in the vascular system was found within the placenta however in animals with Homo Coryell placental structures such as rodents and primates the vascular resistance in the placenta was low leading scientists to the conclusion that the greatest resistance to maternal blood flow is found elsewhere in the maternal vascular system the high vascular resistance outside of the placenta leads to higher maternal blood pressure throughout the body the fetal cells that implant into the uterine wall are known as the Trop ho blast the Hema Coryell percent abates the fetal troppo blast in maternal blood by forming lacunae or lakes of the Moo there are on registered trademark s blood that surround fetal tissue the lacuna are filled by the spiral arteries which means that the new theory euro unregistered trademark s blood pressure is the driving force behind the introduction of new blood which contains both oxygen and food for the fetus to the system it is thought that humans need the increased diffusion provided by the heme o Coryell placenta in order to grow the large brains compared to their body size that distinguish them from other primates equals incorrect placental implantation equals it is thought that a euro lower failings a euro in normal Hema Coryell placental structure led to preeclampsia and gestational hypertension the human placenta implants a euro earlier deeper and more extensive a euro into the uterine wall which can potentially lead to many problems that are found in human pregnancies but not as much in other animals miscarriage in preeclampsia are both very rare in other species but a two of the most common pregnancy related diseases in humans the genetic roots of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia a certain as women with a family history of the condition of three times more likely to suffer from it when they are pregnant one of the potential causes of chillest a tional hypertension and preeclampsia is when the troppo blast does not invade far enough into the uterine lining when the fetus a euro on registered trademark drop hopeless does not fully extend into the uterine wall the spiral arteries do not become fully converted into low resistance channels it has been found that this incomplete conversion of spiral arteries increases the resistance to uterine blood flow during pregnancy and that this occurrence was associated with gestational hypertension one potential cause of this incomplete breech of the spiral arteries that leads to gestational hypertension is a mistaken immune response by the maternal tissue reaction to the alien fetal tissue therefore it is clear that the complication of gestational hypertension has roots in the early implantation of the fetus in the uterine wall an implantation technique that is unique to humans the highly invasive placenta that is found in humans is thought to be linked to human sir euro on Magister trademark high circulating levels of the hormone CG and HCG it has been shown that the higher the levels of these hormones the deeper the trophoblast o euro unregistered trademark s invasion into the uterine wall instances of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia have been shown to occur when the invasion of the uterine wall is not deep enough because of lower CG and HCG levels in the mother equals evolutionary trade of equals despite these risks for gestational hypertension the Hema Coryell placenta has been favored because of its advantages in the way that it aids in diffusion from mother to fetus later in pregnancy the bipedal posture that has allowed humans to walk upright has also led to a reduced cardiac output and it has been suggested that this is what necessitated humans a euro unregistered trademark aggressive early placental structures increased maternal blood pressure can attempt to make up for lower cardiac output ensuring that the fetus a euro on registered trademark s growing brain receives enough oxygen in nutrients the benefits of being able to walk upright and run on land have outweighed the disadvantages that come from bipedalism including the placental diseases of pregnancy such as gestational hypertension similarly the advantages of having a large brain size have outweighed the deleterious effects of having a placenta that does not always convert the spiral arteries effectively leaving humans vulnerable to contracting gestational hypertension it is speculated that this was not the case with Neanderthals and that they died out because their cranial capacity increased too much and their Pleasant eye were not equipped to handle the fetal brain development leading to widespread preeclampsia and maternal and fetal death gestational hypertension in the early stages of pregnancy has been shown to improve the health of the child both in its first year of life and its later life however when the disease develops later in the pregnancy or turns into preeclampsia there begin to be detrimental health effects for the fetus including low birth weight it has been proposed that fetal genes designed to increase the MU there are you on registered trademark s blood pressure are so beneficial that they outweigh the potential negative effects that can come from preeclampsia it has also been suggested that gestational hypertension and preeclampsia have remained active traits due to the cultural capacity of humans and the tendency for midwives or helpers to aid in delivering babies equals relevance of evolutionary history equals it is the goal of evolutionary medicine to find treatments for diseases that are informed by the evolutionary history of a disease it has been suggested that gestational hypertension is linked to insulin resistance during pregnancy both the increase in blood sugar that can lead to gestational diabetes and the increase in blood pressure that can lead to gestational hypertension and mechanisms that mean to optimize the amount of nutrients that can be passed from maternal tissue to fetal tissue it has been suggested that techniques used to combat insulin insensitivity might also prove beneficial to those suffering from gestational hypertension measures to avoid insulin resistance include avoiding obesity before pregnancy minimizing weight gain during pregnancy eating foods with low glycemic indexes and exercising references

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