Introduction to Female Reproductive Anatomy – 3D Anatomy Tutorial


Okay so this is an introduction to female
reproductive anatomy so the idea of this tutorial is not to go into huge amounts of detail but
to introduce you to some of the basic elements of the female reproductive tract.
So what we’re looking at here is a lateral view of the pelvic viscera, so anteriorly,
we’ve got the bladder, behind that we’ve got the female reproductive system, and then behind
that we’ve got the rectum and the anal canal. So you can see the location of this reproductive
system in relation to the bladder and the digestive system behind it.
So the main parts that I’m going to talk about are the ovaries (which are the primary female
sex organ), and then you’ve got the fallopian tubes, or the uterine tubes, as they are also
known, which connect to the uterus, which is this muscular sac, which is where the embryo
develops into a foetus, which develops into a baby. And then you’ve got the vagina, which
opens up in the perineum. So if I just rotate the model around, you
can have a look from the anterior aspect, so you’ve got the uterus, which we are looking
at here – you can see the superior portion of the uterus, which is known as the fundus.
You’ve got the fallopian tubes, and you’ve got the ovaries on either side.
So I’ve just switched to this model here of an isolated view of the female anatomy, so
you can see these white oval shaped structures, which are the ovaries, and as I mentioned
before, they are the primary sex organs of the female. So they are responsible for producing
the female sex cells, or the egg, or the ovum as it’s known. And this ovum is released monthly,
and the process of releasing the ovum from the ovary is known as ovulation. So the ovaries
are actually suspended in the peritoneal cavity by several ligaments, and I won’t talk about
these here, but it’s important to know that the ovaries are intraperitoneal and they release
the egg into the peritoneal cavity. And what happens is that the fallopian tubes have these
finger like projections distally, which are known as fimbriae, so you can see these little
finger projections coming off the distal end of these tubes, which are known as the uterine
tubes, and these fimbriae are responsible for wafting the egg that’s released from the
ovary into the tube. So the uterine tube has four parts: it’s got an infundibulum, an ampulla
an isthmus, and an intrauterine part. So as I mentioned before, you’ve got the fimbriae
here, and then the wide distal part is known as the infundibulum, and then as we come round
we’ve got the ampulla, which is the middle and longest part of the uterine tube, and
it’s the most common site for fertilisation of the egg by the male sperm – so that’s an
important point to remember. And then the medial third of the, of the uterine tube,
is called the isthmus, and it’s the narrowest part of the tube and it opens up into the
uterus. So where the, where the fallopian tube opens up into the uterus is called the
intrauterine part, so that makes sense – it’s inside the uterus and it opens up into the
cavity of the uterus. So the uterus is this sac-like structure, this hollow organ, which
has thick muscular walls, and as you can see from this lateral view, it lies at this kind
of angle to the vagina. So coming back to this model, you can see the bladder sitting
anteriorly to it, and the uterus is flexed above it. So there are three parts to the
uterus, you’ve got the dome-shaped superior part of the uterus, which is called the fundus,
and this part of the uterus lies superiorly to the point where the uterine tubes enter
into the uterus. And then you’ve got the bulk of the uterus, which is known as the body,
and this is the main part of the uterus. And then inferiorly you’ve got the cervix of the
uterus. So the cervix is the neck of the uterus. So remember in the vertebrae, you’ve got the
cervical vertebrae, so it just refers to the vertebrae which are in the neck, so cervix
means neck. So the neck of the uterus protrudes into the vagina inferiorly. So you’ve got
the fundus, the body and the cervix. So I’ve just switched over to a simple cross section
of the uterus, and I just wanted to show you the cervical portion, the cervix of the uterus.
So I’ve outlined it in green, and it’s this narrow inferior portion, and where it opens
up into the vagina, it’s called the external os. So you’ve got this external opening into
the vagina. And where it opens up into the uterine cavity above, it’s called the internal
os. So I’ve just come over to this nice cross-sectional model and what I want to show you here, is
the way the dome shaped cervix protrudes into the vagina, so you can see this protrusion
here. So by protruding into the vagina in this way, the cervix creates recesses around
it. So anteriorly you’ve got this recess here, and posteriorly you’ve got this recess here,
where the cervix meets the, vaginal wall. So you’ve got these pockets around the vagina,
and these are known as the fornix. So you’ve got an anterior fornix anteriorly, a posterior
fornix behind, and you’ve got 2 lateral fornices. So in terms of the layers of the uterus, you’ve
got an outer connective tissue layer, which is called the perimetrium – I’m drawing this
on in red here. And then as you can see from this cross section, you’ve got a thick middle
layer of muscle, and this is smooth muscle, and it’s important during labour for the smooth
muscle to contract. And then lining the cavity of the uterus, you’ve got the endometrium.
So you’ve got the endometrium here, the muscle layer I forgot to mention is called the myometrium,
and then like I mentioned before, you’ve got the perimetrium, which is the outer connective
tissue covering. So the endometrium, which is the internal mucosal layer, is interesting
because it thickens during the menstrual cycle, and it disintegrates at the onset of menstruation.
So it is under hormonal influence, so it varies in thickness during the menstrual cycle. So
the lower part of the female reproductive tract, is the vagina, and this is a fibromuscular
tube, and as you can see, it lies anterior to the rectum and anal canal, and it lies
behind the bladder, so we can see the bladder here and the urethra here, so those are the
anatomical relationships. So the vagina runs between the external vaginal orifice, up to
the cervix, to the external os of the cervix, and this internal end of the vagina is known
as the vaginal vault. And just like the uterus, the vagina has three layers, you’ve got the
outer connective tissue layer, the middle muscular layer and you’ve got the internal
mucosa. So, rotating this model around, you can see that the pelvic cavity is lined by
this flat sheet of peritoneum which is continuous with the peritoneum from the abdominal cavity
above, and this peritoneum which sort of drapes over the pelvic viscera, is known as the broad
ligament and you’ve got various other ligaments attaching to the uterus and attaching to the
ovaries, which carry vessels and support the viscera structurally, and I won’t talk about
these now, but it’s important to be aware of this flat sheet of peritoneum which is
draped over the viscera and it’s called the broad ligament. And this sheet of ligament
which is draped over these organs forms various pouches. So for instance, anteriorly, you’ve
got this little pouch here, called the vesico-uterine pouch, and posteriorly, you can see how this
pouch forms behind the superior end of the vagina, and this is called the recto-uterine
pouch, or the pouch of Douglas. So just to be aware that this peritoneum drapes over
the uterus, and you can see the intraperitoneal ovary here. So that’s a brief introduction
to some of the elements of the female reproductive anatomy.

83 Replies to “Introduction to Female Reproductive Anatomy – 3D Anatomy Tutorial”

  1. No problem – hope it is useful! If you could take 1 minute to fill out a feedback form on my website (only 7 quick questions) about how you found the tutorial, that would be much appreciated! (go to anatomyzone(dot)com and it is the top post) Thanks 🙂

  2. omg, its very helpful !! I will have exam the day after tommorow ! wish me luck, thanks for your video :)))))))

  3. good luck! And if you have time – please fill out a feedback form for me to let me know how you found the tutorials (go to anatomyzone(dot)com and it is the top post)! 🙂

  4. Random Question: Do you have any videos on human kinesiology? Would you be willing to make videos about human kinesiology and more sports related videos. Thanks.

  5. the topic is such that thngs r simply getting printed in my heart….hahahaahaha…all n all its very well explanable!!!!

  6. Amazing video btw… Well explained..But there is a slight error…in explaining d anatomical position of the vagina..i suppose you meant to say the urinary bladder is located ANTERIORLY and the rectum and anal canal is located POSTERIORLY… Thank you..

  7. This was really well done, out of curiosity what program are you using to display the 3D models? I am currently studying anatomy for school and was looking for a good program like this to be able to get a better idea of where things are in 3D space.

  8. @AnatomyZone I really love your tutorials!! Thank you soo much! I have got a random question but it's giving me heart aches since I can't find the logic in it yet… could you tell me why the Clitoris/ Penis drains into the inguinal region. I mean why couldn't their regional lymph nodes be in the internal iliac region since the clitoris and the penis are mainly supplied by branches of the internal iliac… Thank you so much in advance. 😀

  9. I have a question if someone had fibroids, had children via c section is it possible to sew a fibroid to the stomach it sounds crazy to me but I'm not educated in this area

  10. Kayla Williams
    it doesnt matter who explained it only matter who explained very well
    don"t be femenist,appreciate it
    THANKS v much Anatomy Zone .))

  11. Hello, your videos are very instructive and helpful, thank you for providing these videos. I have a question here. Isn't the intramural part of the uterine tube the narrowest part? it's been said so in our lectures and it appears to be the narrowest in many atlas images.

  12. what i could not understand in all those years and all those books u made me do so within minutes…. HATS off to u!! all videos are very nice and well made.. keep making them and keep making life of med school student easier.. God bless you

  13. no you are wrong;ovary is the only abdominal organ not covered by peritoneum-just check from Ten Teachers

  14. cervical ca is associated with HPV 16 and 18, most common site in the transformation zone.

    Vaginal mucosa is stratified squamous non keratinized

    bring this to the exam. it comes out

  15. Hi, im just wondering why there are two ovaries and only one egg release during ovulation? Cant find the answer. Thanks

  16. beautifully explained .. and thank u soooo much .. it was amazingly explained .. and clearly words were spoken and explained….

  17. I can't believe this knowledge comes from human being…like so many other things ie mathematics, science,tech…its findings of extraterrestrial in our life…

  18. The VAGINA, starts with one finger, self lubricating, changes it’s own fluids approximately every 30 days, it only has one problem it’s management system can be very bitchy and uncooperative at times.

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