Triage Thoughts Episode 68 | Q&A – Machines vs Free Weights, Menstrual Cycle Considerations & More

what is up guys welcome to episode 68 of the triage method podcast I'm back in lovely overcast Ireland patty still in America how are you this week buddy I'm absolutely positively fantastic we tried to record this the other day Gary slept in first of all disgusting wait three minutes disgusting regardless and then his internet was awful so that's why today's podcast is a little bit later than usual and hopefully I'm gonna get it up today so it'll still be on the same day and this is the same day for me so that's all the matter isn't it and oh yeah so today's podcast we are basically going to do a Q&A one because we've been getting a good few questions in and and there's a few ones here that are good in terms of they allow us to cover a few a few different variables a few different things but also we really appreciate it when people actually submit questions because it actually allows us to answer your questions as crazy as that sounds and well yeah like obviously we come up with topics topics maybe we're thinking about topics we maybe think or have been asked about in real person or real life but it does always help also to come up with topics if you actually ask questions if you actually guide the process and actually you know tell us what you need help with you know because let's just coming up with random topics yeah that obviously helps but maybe it's not the answer or it doesn't provide you with the answers to the questions you want answers to so there is a forum in the description box and if you want to submit your questions and I do suggest you do even if you think it is a pretty stupid question or even if it's a very specific question you know it does allow us to talk to a broader audience answer our broader audience even if the question is specific because like as much as we all want to think we're unique snowflakes and whatever else like more often than not you're just not someone else is going to have the same issue something else can have the same problem so that's gonna have the same circumstances everything and I'm providing you with an answer dos provides damn and an answer but anyway Gary we get cracking on with this QA yeah so to give some context these questions are essentially a mix of those from our Facebook community which we really recommend that you join that's the easiest way to have like comprehensive contact with us because we can actually answer questions index there we're hoping to kind of reduce the amount that we use Instagram so our Facebook community that's the place to be if you're not there yet involved that will be linked in the description box below as well so get on that and so yeah with these questions to come in from you guys and we're gonna work through them one by one and I study said if you have questions in the future do submit them so the first question was is the chest press okay for building my chest I prefer it to the bench press and this was actually from from one of my clients who can ask this personally so this is a question that I got and B email and the reason the reason he essentially asked this is because I've actually been programming this for him and he's essentially found this he much prefers this exercise gets a lot more out of it feels like he pushed himself a lot more versus the bench press and and yeah that was essentially his question and I suppose like before we get into this I think it's worth noting that the answer to this question can apply to a wide variety of exercises it's not just about the chest press versus the bench press it's more so kind of a fundamental like conceptual understanding of exercise that's often missing so you know one thing we always talk about patty is the idea that most people these days in terms of getting their health and fitness education they tend to get it from social media whether that doesn't just mean instagrams it can also be Facebook it can even be YouTube and you know you can get valuable information on those platforms but very often they're quite there it's it's meant to give you sound bites it's meant to give you things that are you know immediately implementable that seem like attractive they're attractive ideas but they're not often giving you like the foundational subjects that are important brawler's superficial information it's like yes the surface level thing if you grasp this you've grasped the concept like you understand the basics in terms of oh yeah like this these exercises work these muscles and you do these consistently in whatever rep range you build muscle you understand that but you don't understand the the underlying concepts you don't understand the kind of why behind that you know you maybe just understand the hair which in itself is helpful but it kind of leads to like you said these sound bites it's like oh do lunges for this do squats for this you know your most benchpress and it's like you can't argue from first principles for that statement you know that's kind of what's missing a lot of the time or anyway sorry for interrupting yeah and like it goes for all exercises and I suppose one of the things that we're that we're trying to do currently and in the future is trying to get to the point where we've laid out all the foundational stuff that people kind of need to know to understand exercise but we're also giving you almost like the sound byte stuff in that like here's what a chest press looks like here's what a bench press looks like here's what a dumb a bench press looks like etc like you can look at all those tools and appreciate them in a like in a non-judgmental way in that like you don't for someone to put out in advice about exercise it doesn't have to be like this is the one best exercise because to be fair you can make a strong argument for lots of exercises being better than lots of other exercises you know there is there is a spectrum there there is a hierarchy but that doesn't mean we have to ignore other exercises because of that but anyway to get to the crux of this question so essentially like where we start off with this is that is asking the question what is it exactly that leads to the chest muscles needing to work during your bench press or during any sort of horizontal pressing exercise and that is essentially it's easier for those of you who are watching this on YouTube obviously but that is essentially some sort of force that's acting on my arm to try and push me down okay so there's some sort of force that's trying to put my shoulder joint into that extended position or horizontal extension which can be a very varying degrees of horizontal art of abduction like that so the arm moving up and down and essentially like that back that relates to you know whether you're if your elbows are pretty high that you can still be challenged if your elbows are down more you can still be challenged because there's there's some way that that can pull on that shoulder joint and apply a force so essentially what you've got is some sort of challenge on the shoulder joint that is trying to push against the path of motion that that pitch that chest muscle can pull okay so that's really simple way of looking at it if you want more detail on that of course go to articles and anatomy and biomechanics and you'll get a better idea of what that stuff means technically but that's essentially what we're looking for we're looking for some sort of force that is opposing movement of the shoulder the chest muscles will create okay so when we're doing each is some sort of chest pressing or horizontal pressor movement the fact that it's a barbell doesn't really matter all your chest muscles are essentially quote-unquote sensing is the fact that they that they are producing sufficient tension to move that shoulder joint okay the fact that it's a barbell or a dumbbell or a chest press it kinda doesn't really matter but at the same time it does matter because those different exercises have to have different qualities so in this case like I think it's useful to at least try and explain why someone might feel that their chest is maybe being better stimulated and a chest press versus a bench press so in this case what could be going on is that let's say when someone uses the chest press what they might be doing is potentially working through a smaller range of motion like that that can happen sometimes like if sometimes when when some people have let's say really long arms really kind of shallow ribcage depending on where they're gripping your bar they might find that when they come down to that real low bottom position that it's been uncomfortable in their shoulders and they don't feel like their chests think submitted as best as possible so that could be one reason it could be a difference in the range of motion that the person's using another difference could be the grip width or the angle of the grip that someone's using so you know you could you could be having a be a narrow narrower grip on the chest press you could have a converging chest press which means that it's while you're at the bottom that's narrower at the top and what that would then mean is that once when you're moving from narrower to lighter it means that your shoulders actually working through a larger range of motion and that's the really interesting thing about discussions a range of motion a lot of the times you know people talk about full range of motion but if you look at the quote unquote full range motion of a a bench press you're actually you're actually still not even getting to that point where your chest muscles would actually be shortened you know and that doesn't you have to but I mean it just means you have to look at range of motion at both ends of the exercise so you could have someone that's using less of the end range of the chest and more of the short range of your chest during a chest press when it's converging so again that's another qualitative and quantitative difference is that exercise some change the experience and then the final one and on that like this is if you can understand what I just said there like you actually will understand a lot of exercise selections because this whole concept of range of motion is obviously important this is what we will talk about but it is one of these kind of bastardized concepts right and this is if you understand that you'll understand why talking about this stuff in terms of like Oh should I do a bench press or a chest press if the kind that becomes irrelevant because what you start thinking of is like what am I actually trying to achieve for this muscle or in this muscle I suppose for this exercise and and like you can see something like this converging chest press that perfectly fits your specific mechanics you know and it could actually take you through almost full range of motion of your chest fibers and also be an appropriate load depending on the way the cables are set over or whatever to the way to machine the column is set up it could be an appropriate load true at every single point of that range of motion the discussion between is that a better exercise than the bench press is obviously going to be hugely different and you'll see this which is really quite interesting in people that do say that are you most bench press they'll then say like oh well I use like dumbbell bench press as well because I get a better contract the Jets and you're like okay well let's actually discuss that if you're and I'm gonna make this argument that the bench press is the best mass builder and then say it's because there's a range of motion or because it's a compound exercise and then you are like oh well I actually need these other exercises to ensure that my chest is appropriately stimulated you know they might go like oh you bench press then you dumbbell bench press and then you do some sort of fly because that gets all of the chest fibers activated or something I don't know you know it's like if you like think about what you're actually trying to achieve like would it be better and this also bleeds into the other arguments around like volume and stuff you know like the discussion of like an exercise or a training program that has adequate volume for each given portion of the muscle verses I say you did that over 9 sets you did ok we're gonna get the chest into like what's a mid-range position and we're gonna get the chest into a kind of fully contracted position and then we're gonna get the chest into a stretch position and you use three different exercises for that for example so we'll say you use the benchpress you use a cable fly you know maybe even coughed up the elbows you yeah and then you use some sort of like dumbbell fly right and you're like yeah I brought the chest true all of its ranges of motion and really adequately stimulated like you say you took nine sets to do that what have you did that in three sets with a chest press machine that was perfectly designed and it stimulated all of those ranges of motion in three sets that's obviously a completely different discussion which obviously gets lost in the overall grand scheme of things when you're discussing all this stuff you know so if you can kind of understand what Kerri was just saying there and really left I kind of permeate and percolate in your mind you will understand a lot about training as a whole yeah because like like you're saying it's just not as black and white as people kind of like to make out because everyone talks or like the overall quantification essentially of the stimulus and that like we're trying to quantify exactly the training stimulus is very often it's it's very macro and not like we're talking with volume like all right how many says did you do but very awesome like that the micro is totally ignored and obviously like your your your hold the stack should be to maximize the micro because you want to get as much out of each repetition and each stamp as possible before you worry about how much how many sets you do like that's kind of common sense in any area of life in that like you're gonna study for 8 hours you want to make sure you could do like one good hour first before you today's and then you want to see how the quality change as you add more hours this is like it's important stuff so that's important to keep into the discussion when it comes to all training principles but to get back to the question the final thing that essentially could be changing here you mentioned it as a relates to a chest press versus bench press is that the way in which that resistance is applied throughout the range of motion could just be different okay so generally what you'll find in and lots of chest rest machines is that but well design ones it might be a little be a little bit of a drop off at the end as you get into that position where you're maybe not quite as strong and then at the top it'll start to increase okay so the resistance was increased a little bit and generally that tends to come with a stronger sensation of chest contraction because it in the top range from your Shortland and also because you're able to keep a bit more control throughout the range of motion so overall there can be a number of different reasons why someone would experience you know a different sensation or a different feeling or feel like they're getting stronger more in a chest press and essentially what we're saying is that like all these exercises work and that if you feel like a chest press is better for you by all means go ahead and use it the same goes for a leg press or a hack squat or a seated row machine you know people people often just assume that there has to be something inherent to barbells or dumbbells that make them more anabolic whereas it's far more likely that it's because of accessibility most trainees tend to use them because they're always accessible and also kind of path dependence and when I say path dependence I mean that something that has all that has been shown in the past is far more likely to be done currently okay so if everyone if all the greatest lifters over time especially when there was less machines have used barbells and dumbbells especially when they're related to different sports like weightlifting a part of thing should expect by default that most of the biggest and strongest guys would use free weights but that but the problem is that that association is often made out to be causal by most people who say oh well look at all the great squatters their big legs it's like because that again is like surface level knowledge or discussion like like you mentioned at the start so yeah it's also very not at all like it's it's a it's a false – false statement like there's loads of squatters that have legs like actually like like skinny leg like like me and but like proper like it like for me a black squat it is a back exercise like is my erectus and my glutes and that's that's a high bar squash you know I'm pretty good at it you know and you also see people who were actually like para lifters if she quotes you know like you look at any of the Louie Simmons guys you know like obviously someone about juicy it's for quads but they squat can really like powerlifting manner and they literally just sit back and they're like quads are for bodybuilders they're for pussies you know off that so if you say like oh squats are a great mass builder for the quads it's like well like first of all we have to discuss what pipe is what we're doing second of all we have to discuss like your actual individual mechanics and then we have to discuss the fact that training stimulus is stimuli are not the same for everyone you know so the statement itself is just factually incorrect and across time like you look at like any of those people that used to do – what's that spine brain squat like a camera member you know where they're likely to put the barbell on its side and then it comes the bars like like when they that's how you originally started squatting like they didn't use tab racks you know and you look at someone else Quadra some of the best ones have literally the skinniest legs I've ever seen in my life they look like marathon runners you know so it's like okay well maybe there's something to it you see people as well being like deadlifts or great mass builders and you see people pulling in like three four hundred kilos and they're skinny as you know so it's like this this there's like there's no the statements people make about these things are easily proven wrong you know so but then it's actually quite funny because people always then make things like oh well those are outliers that's like but how can you say that and then say the exact opposite when it's your state we're like not agree with that same statement when it's your statement if you go oh all the best squatters have juicy legs that's like okay well here's people that don't oh they're all outliers you're like well you all your people that are squatting with juicy legs are all empires because the vast majority people don't get squat juicy legs from squatting and also don't squat you know so it's like this this whole thought process is easily taken apart yeah but the problem is that like it's so hard to have these discussions without without those listeners people listening black guys like I know people is an hour podcast wouldn't do this but most you feel like they want to put you in a camp once you start making these points and someone made this arguing with me before when I was talking about like the benefits of using machines and how in some cases they can be better than freeways and then someone said that this goes against all everything or all your advice because you say that like babble hip thrusts are better for building glutes than Luke hit back when you're giving advice to females like like how does this is like you're just you're just taking one point and taking totally out of context okay this doesn't mean that we are antivirals like most of my training most of the time is barrel related you know same with yours like you love barbell it's you don't squatting and we love these exercises but so it doesn't just mean that we are the machine guys like all I care about is how we apply force to people and that the Kalima how we modify that some people get results that's all that matters like we don't have chance it's the same with diet though like I mean I I read lots of posts from people who are very Pro like at the consumption of animal based foods and I'm like oh yeah savage points and then I follow some other people who are like billions like plant-based diets and they make some solid points I'm like yeah good stuff you know because you can find good information on both sides of the aisle it's just when you go to the extremes the things get I was gonna say a problematic there jeepers that thing's the problem start to present themselves but yeah you know you can you can use machines and you can use rebels believe it or not and say that they're both useful and you can also eat plenty of meat and eggs and you can eat plenty of mixed salads and also you know just be like I like both you want mate you want to be part of the cult but that's okay but anyway thanks question was should I increase finish that question right so all of that stuff as well with it whether you should choose a bench press or whether you should choose a chest press machine you also have to consider what is the actual gold because you are a power lifter yeah like obviously you're going to have to use the bench press you know yes that doesn't mean that you always have to use it you know maybe you're like okay my chest is actually weak you know I'm not getting an adequate stimulus from this and I'm going to use a chest press to get more volume on my chest and actually build up the muscles there so you know I can decrease the range of motion that I'm doing on the bench press cuz my chest is thick and juicy so I need to come down that's you know but you need to actually discuss what you're actually trying to achieve because obviously we were just talking about it there in terms of Gary's client who's obviously trying to build muscle maybe lose fat or whatever but if their goal is to build muscle like all we care about is the stimulus on that muscle but if your goal is to compete in a sport that requires you to bend pressed you're gonna need to bench press like this it's pretty straight forward you know like that there's there's no real way around that so yeah you need to consider the individual nope another next question on to the nutrition side of things should I increase carbohydrates or fats when gaining ie in a calorie surplus with the aim of building muscle and presumably not gaining that much fat what do we think personally looking at the scientific literature whatever carbohydrates are going to give you the best bang for your buck in terms of performance and gaining potential okay fats I just look at them as once you're kind of past that 0.62 one gram per kilo like once you're in that kind of range you're pretty good to go you know like there are may be potential benefits for the lower end or the higher end or even above that for certain populations and but that's kind of a more specific circumstantial kind of discussion we need to have you know like if you're talking about someone that I don't know has certain genes that predispose them to not deal with fat as well obviously they're going to have to consume lower fat intakes you know so that I'll be more specific but in terms of just generalized advice I would definitely go for carbs you think about it they also give the best bang for your buck in terms of an insulin response right which is obviously something that we are we actually want when we are trying to gain muscle you know like we're trying to grow and insulin is effectively looking or working as a new sensor or an energy sensor in this case so if you're sent its a buddy's hand or your body you were eating stuff that's allowing your body to tell the rest of your body that yeah there's food available you know growing is probably a good idea right now you know that's that's obviously what we want and in terms of thinking of this kind of a little bitch out there first of all carbohydrates are going to give you the best bang for your buck in terms of your performance in the gym day to day right for the vast majority people depending on obviously depends on what you're doing will provide some majority people if we're talking about gaining muscle you know you're going to be tapping into that kind of glycogen stuff as you are training rap more so than the the fat stores purely because that's that's you know the energetics of muscle contraction right so carbohydrates are gonna give you the most bang for your buck in terms of your performance in the gym especially if you're doing kind of we'll say the 12 ish rep range you know you're kind of pumping up those those reps and again an effort to increase overall volume like you're just going to be tapping into those stores a little bit more you know maybe like I know some people do it like you don't like carbohydrates for performance and they're doing like tree reps you know it's like like yeah obviously it does help but it's not exactly you're not exactly tapping into any kind of anaerobic processes that would require this hugely right and so yeah my vote goes for carbohydrates yeah I would I would agree like just a couple of points that I suppose like do you can make a very strong argument for it being potentially beneficial for most of the lien performance we've actually discussed that like quite a bit in like if you go into the nutrition articles you can read about the carbohydrate stuff and also in the training articles in the exercise physiology we've touched on some of the like the more physiological concepts as it relates to like nutrition and resistance training so I you can you can read more about that there but since you can make an argument that they can potentially improve performance and/or recovery which may or may not be important depending on the situation for example if you're if you also play a sport and while trying to gain muscle probably important to have a higher carbohydrate intake in general and then you can also make the argument that it could potentially lead to less fat gain as in like there is there are some studies at least in the short term where you overfeed with carbohydrates versus overfeeding with fat you tend to see less less fat game and for whatever reason committee cases they're just initially storing the glycogen that it causes increases in performance or whatever whatever the reason is but their assets so there is some research research on that the other thing I think is more of a practical concern in that from what I've from what I've observed in people who have preferred a higher fat approach what they tend to do what tends to happen sometimes is when you have a high calorie intake and a high fat goal while also having that same moderate carbohydrates you can actually eat pretty much whatever you want while satisfying your macronutrients in that it's very easy to just be like oh I've got whatever 40 grams of fat left and I want to grab the carbs so I'm gonna go and get like a double cheeseburger and a dairy milk you know so sometimes that is what happens is that because there's essentially no constraint on any one macronutrient people can sometimes make potentially worse than choices which which in in small quantities not a problem but when they're in larger quantities and especially within a calorie surplus and that might be ideal okay so food food quality does matter for sure and so yeah you can make the argument both practically and theoretically that the increase in carbohydrates probably a better idea 100% also like I know people it's somewhat transient Xylo know people like near lettuce stuff that isn't necessarily true but speaking from a scientific point of view that carbohydrates are going to give you more of hormonal advantage all right in terms of again like they're signalling to your body that you have energy available more so than you would if you got fast available or you were eating fast because you get a bigger insulin response and you could make the argument that that's going to increase your testosterone more so than having more fat and bi but again gets kinda tricky because you need a certain amount of faff for those processes especially like class role and so you know that can be synthesized and for those processes to actually take place which is really like it's quite funny like we were talking about this earlier on dairying like I was saying that most biochemists are actually retarded and would like it is the case because people make these claims that like if you actually understood what was going on like under the hood you would kind of go oh that actually makes a lot of sense like you look at our insulin-resistant they actually have higher testosterone levels right so people are all like all you'd get insulin sensitive you need to get insulin sensitive because it's better for your health and to a large extent that's very true right and but if you look at the actual research is like people that are insulin resistant do tend to have higher testosterone levels just did you just compare two populations right and obviously make sense because for every card that they're eating they have to scream more insulin to get it to knock on the door to get into the cell and again that insulin is signaling to the body that you have energy available or energy available so testosterone goes off you know which is kind of explain why testosterone generally tends to go down as you get into those really lean levels of body fat you know again this all has to be taken in context of you're looking at people that are overweight if they lose fat generally their testosterone is gonna go up you know but if we're talking about someone in this kind of healthy range this kind of we'll say 8 to 16 ish % for four guys you know if you're at the higher end of that generally your testosterone is gonna be a little bit higher you know which is something that we kind of intuitively don't think makes sense but also you have to couch it in terms of like if stuff is able to get into your cells more easily in general that means that your testosterone itself is that is circulating your body is going to be more effective so even if there's a lower total magnitude it is more effective because it's actually able to get where it needs to go so like if you're looking into any of this from a hormonal advantage from all should I choose fats or should I choose carbohydrates all that stuff is just way more tricky than you initially think it would be you know so there's that yeah and then I suppose like the only the only final thing that's worth considering which is which is something like in that article which I mentioned that you basically kind of add on at the end because it's useful reinforcing point but it shouldn't be the first step you take is that when you look at like the research that has been carried out on the most successful bodybuilders who tend to win shows and do the best and have the most muscle and earliness they tend to consume more carbohydrates throughout their dieting phases than anyone else and in their offseason so it is what it is it's not hard evidence but when we add it to everything else we discuss I'm like yeah well that's definitely a worthwhile talking point you know because we don't see we don't see all of these people who have really high fat low carbohydrate diets doing quite as successful but again there's an element of path dependence there and that like everyone has recommended carbohydrates for quite a while but take that for what it is in the context of everything else we said it's also really hard to interpret the research like you were saying there you're on about like all people who consume more carbohydrates versus people who consume more fats in the diet you know they're like all the people that were consuming the fats gained more body fat we have taken to a camp that you know the the type of fat they eat doesn't matter somewhere between like calorie was seven to eleven calories per gram you know depending on the type of factories so whereas carbohydrates if I remember correctly is like three to five I think that's roughly where it's at so like you could have a case where I think about that there's one in the difference could weaken carbs as for calories so there's one in the difference either side of that right whereas with fats there's two in the difference right so you could be consuming a diet that even though you think it's equated for calories it's not actually you know if the fatty acids that you were choosing are actually 11 calories you know where the majority of them you know you're actually consuming more calories than you think you are consuming so that again like it's really hard to really get into the nitty-gritty of this the research because there's so much under the hood of that kind of calories in calories out argument that people just gonna go lie it didn't work for me so see you later no yeah basically carbs that's what wins in my opinion once you're getting 0.6 to 1 gram per kilo any good to go for fat so yeah yes sir like you could probably add on the additional caveat that like if someone was let's say overweight an insulin resistant you might want to lower care approach but again you wouldn't be gaining weight in that context anyway so that's kind of it also people people say that all the time but I also don't think that that is a good strategy long term because like we know higher fat diets making more insulin resistant so like that's that's not going to like it may help them transiently but it also doesn't set them up long term for what you actually want to achieve but that's again it comes down to this kind of like we'll call it nutritional periodization where you're gonna like where are we right now let's make the correct decisions based on that rather than just going like oh well here's the the overview thing this applies to everyone 100% of the time it's like no they use that as an overview then you start on and then specifically to the population you know and then you start dialing in yes sir that was these our comprehend right this this is a shorter one I'm running my first five kilometer race this weekend any nutritional strategies I should be considering to optimize performance and so first things first the thing to consider in this case is that five kilometers although it may seem like it's a it's an intensive endeavor for you at this point in time from like an energy system or an energy demand perspective it's not that demanding in that like you you wouldn't have to consider like a massive carbohydrate load in the days before for something like that so like from my perspective there wouldn't be anything massively that I change other than the basic recommendations that I probably give to someone who is just doing resistance training anyway and that like if you're coming up to the race you know having a having enough carbohydrates in the day before and potentially not training lower body would be a good idea and then ensuring the next day that you're getting in carbohydrates before your race and I start with a complete meal getting your protein as well probably two hours before the race in and around there different people have different preferences but generally when it comes to doing any sort of performance event I always recommend people to stick with foods you know work for you you know because I've had that experience in the past for people who've been like oh you know all the all the other runners they use like these energy bears so I'm gonna try those and then you just feel like crap ask them because you never tried before same with things like liquid carbohydrates never consumed something before after a performance of it before during a performance event that you haven't had before so maybe the main considerations from my perspective like oh then that like you can obviously consider like supplementation or even just having a coffee like that can that can help as well it can help endurance performance caffeine is useful like for a 5k and you're just doing your first one I wouldn't be looking much further than that really from a nutrition perspective what do you think only on top about I would say just make sure that you are eating at least at maintenance or in a surplus in the lead-up to it like don't be trying to do which is what a lot of people do when they're like oh I'm gonna go couch to 5k and it's like they're dreaming at this like you know I've been using a kilo per week the whole time and there's some that weighs like 70 kilos you're like okay you're in like you're in a massive deficit here you know and so if you are trying to have your best performance you you want to be at least eating maintenance calories so that you're then at least eating maintenance for the week to two weeks before the event potentially even in a surplus in the week to two weeks before the event you know obviously that has to be framed in terms of like running is generally a sport that favors lower body weights so if you are overweight you know maybe being two kilos lighter because you have spent the last two kilos in a deficit is going to be an advantage for you you know you obviously have to to weigh out the pros and cons for that but as a general if I was talking to anyone is in a general capacity I would say at least maintenance calories for the week to two weeks beforehand which should keep you within a kilo of the low body weight you wear out if you wear a losing body fat up until that point and the only thing that's being stored is muscle glycogen and water which is only gonna help your performance no yeah that's actually said you mentioned a point there about like you know the hole where your calories are at and stuff and I think that's something that a lot of people who lift weights they they miss about running in that like most people take off some sort of running as a means of burning more calories like a lot of people that live they tend to do that they're like oh I want to do more cardio summer is coming up so I'm reducing my calories and I'm gonna add in lots of running and then they find it to be a horrible experience because they're like oh no I was too tired too fatigued couldn't recall from lower body training but they look at it differently to how they would look at their weight training in that they would expect performance to decrease like a lot of people do we generally don't cuz a lot of people would expect performance decrease to some degree and training to be a little bit more burdensome if you're in a large calorie deficit that say but when they look at the they don't they don't apply that the end to their running or their cardio training so that's something I would really encourage a lot of people to try is that you know when you're in a surplus when you're at maintenance when you have be able to fuel training give more cardio or a rollback work or whatever you want to call it conditioning training give it a try then because that's when you get better like that's ultimately when you're actually fueling performance you're going to get the best adaptations you're gonna make the best progress so you should definitely view your conditioning training in a similar way that you view your resistance training if you don't feel it properly it's not gonna be as enjoyable and you're not going to perform or improve as well so that's that's definitely worth considering yeah and like obviously that's not to say that you can't use cardio to induce your calorie Devils that's perfectly fine but just you just have to have the right frame of mind or the mind set around it in terms of you know you're not you're not fueling this activity you're actually getting into a deficit of energy because of this activity so don't expect yourself to have this unreal performance or to notice these unreal adaptations because you're just not feeling it you know I can this isn't the mower you like working with I mean the kind of guidelines I have and like really pushing certain adaptations come or anaerobic a lactic as well adaptations when we are in a surplus you know when we actually have the calories to fuel that you know and I know everyone who does guy always wants to do a little bit more but it's like yeah we're gonna do this we're gonna fuel that you know so there has to be that trade-off like you can't be doing intense training like especially like intervals is generally what I'm using to induce us and we can't be doing that if we're in a deficit like for sure we can do not in a deficit but you have to accept that there's gonna be this little bit of a trade-off where you're not gonna get the most out of these adaptations and you essentially have to accept that you're gonna just try to maintain your fitness you know you might get a little bit of an increase because there are some pretty cool mitochondrial adaptations that occur when you are losing fat like you are kind of up regulating those processes mitochondrial biogenesis and stuff so you might notice some really nice adaptations especially if you're coming from an position to a fitter position but if you're already fit or generally fit and you're looking to really push the envelope with a fitness you need unit yo and if you're like listening to Patti and you're like what lower energy mitochondrial biogenesis blah blah blah again go back to those exercises exercise physiology articles part 3 of applying energy systems endurance physiology it's covered there in terms of like how diet and physiology interact there's again podcast we did on energy systems as well yeah now if you go back and listen I think there's two it'll I do go back and I was like it does explain a lot and you can gonna start getting a thought process or around that kind of stuff yeah so the information is there go check it out and so I think that covers that question and the next part is our higher or the next question rather our high repetition sets example 15 to 20 reps effective for building muscles so in general yes and they are effective like one of the things you see in the research is that you can essentially build muscle with more or less anywhere any repetition range that doesn't mean that it's all qualitatively the same and it doesn't mean that it's all as practically useful and what I mean by that is that you know most of the time people consider the hypertrophy reference you know and there is there is technically like a range that is probably most useful for our team also deciding it's probably somewhere between 6 and 15 repetitions but it's more like it's more like a spectrum than it is like a hard cutoff point in that generally what you see when people perform really low repetitions in like let's say less than 5 reps it's people find it far more fatiguing far more and more challenging their might it's generally a little bit more uncomfortable there's more fatigue related to it and it's potentially less less practical from the perspective like setting up all the weights and potentially less practical on different exercises even it might not be as useful on all exercises and there was another point I was going to to say there potentially you could say that there might be differences in injury risk when you go slower repetition ranges because you're you're using more weight overall and any let's say deviation in your technique that could fall let's say if you fell to one side there's more risk associated with that or you're more difficulty racking the bar whatever so there's those practical considerations on that end of the spectrum on the other end of the spectrum there's also considered okay with that as well like you also have to look at like if you consider it's not one set that we're talking about it's the overall work edge and we'll say just for argument's sake we'll say that means yet thirty effective reps in a workout to induce hyper circle you know like you could again make that argument I'll be like alright I'm gonna do 10 sets of three what think of like ten sets of three versus we'll say five sets of ten you know you're getting 50 reps with five sets of ten well it's not nearly as fatiguing as 10 sets of three you know and I'm saying 5 sets of 10 because when you are in those lower rep ranges like you're pretty much getting like 100% of that muscle fiber activation whereas when you're in those kind of higher rep ranges which is probably what Gary's gonna go into now and you're not getting full muscle activation from the offset you know so we'll say the last five of those reps in that 10 rep set were effective so you 5 sets of 10 you may again like 25 proper full activation reps you know whereas if you do 10 sets of 3 yeah you got 30 but it's a lot harder like neurologically and also not even just neurologically well obviously plays into it but mentally like you try going into 10 heavy heavy sets you know that's a lot harder than doing 3 to 5 moderately heavy sets that are kind of 10 to 12 reps you know yeah and like that that's that's definitely a worthwhile practice coaching the kind of effective rep discussion but that's generally one of the reasons like less than 5 just becomes less practical because even like let's say you did singles you tried to do 20 singles it's like how practical is that it's like yeah those one that one repetition really potent stimulus probably similar to let's say you're a threat when you're going to failure at ace but the thing is what if you're doing a set of eight you're also getting good stimulus from the seven good stimulus from the six a bit less from the five now much from the fourth nothing to the three you know so that's kind of essentially the way that it works is that the closer you get to failure like the thing is this is what science says now Arnold Schwarzenegger said this it's the rest you know Bruce Lee I think said the same thing it's like it's those reps when you're starting to feel the burn and it's getting really hard they're the ones to count and it's like yeah that's a bit broad sciency but it's true you know that is essentially the truth that there the rest encounter those reps where you are actual search of failure that doesn't mean they're going to going all the way to failure is necessary and that's kind of where people kind of mix this up is that there's probably very little difference between like zero reps and reserve and one rep and reserve in terms of the stimulus but it's very fatiguing to go all the way to maximal failure if you know how to go there and which a lot of also yeah so so yeah and essentially you've got those at the end of the set is generally going to be the most hypertrophic if you want to use that word and that's where we move on to the higher repetition ranges from a higher repetition ranges you can indeed gain a lot of muscle like if you wanted to do sets of 20s it's a 25 but it's it's so hard like it's really hard as you get to those last reps to really you know have the the cojones to pull push yourself all the way to that 25th rep with your true 25 rep max really difficult and in general all the research supports that that people report far more discomfort on those higher rep sets and even though they are building the same amount of muscle as people using let's say the 8 to 12 rep range so the the short and sweet of it is that you can get more so with all repetition ranges it's probably most practical to use 6 to 15 a lot of the time but also then the additional caveat is that there might be differences in the specific adaptations that you're actually getting so obviously for you if you're doing 1 to 5 reps let's say that's more specific maximum strength so you're practicing what that maximal strength like if you're trying to improve your 1 rep max then that's going to be more specific to that your 1 rep max is still tight until you want to be increasing if you do 812 reps but it might be might not increase to the same degree it might even be the case you've increased your 12 rep max but you're wondering max might have increased or might have decreased because you haven't practiced that's skill in a while so it's important if you strength as a skill so when you're getting those high repetition ranges again like 20 30 reps there is the potential that some of that hypertrophy could potentially be quote-unquote sarcoplasmic hypertrophy essentially what that means is that there's just some there's increases in the size of the actual muscle content whether that's not coming from the lawyer favorite proteins which are your act and your moissan if you don't know what that is read the understanding muscle contraction article on our website and so basically what you're getting is you're getting an increase in the muscle size but it's not necessarily coming from the proteins that are responsible for contraction that doesn't mean that it's used it's useless not at all it just means that other things are increasing in size so that's worth considering as well so potentially different adaptations and that and that's something that's worth considering too is that you might actually want to period eyes repetition ranges over time if there are addition type tations at each level and also if there's different practical considerations it can make training really enjoyable to focus a bit more on let's say increasing your fiber at max for a while and then trying to you know increase your 20 rep max for a while and if there's potential benefit benefits there I think it's a good idea to do that would I would I recommend someone going changes goes and changes all of their repetition ranges to 15 to 20 probably not it's practically quite difficult and like personally I quite like that that's six to 15 repetitions range and I mean if you're if you're after the burn and you like that feeling like the repetitions and see how higher instead of eight fields it will feel very similar to a set of 20 and I think that's the other part of the discussion that probably gets lost is that again I like what sort of repetition are we talking about are we talking about like boom boom don't know but you know bone so are we talking about like three seconds now and pausing for a second three seconds up again not saying that's better but it's definitely different and you know different repeted different repetition ranges also have to be considered within the context of duty for repetition tempos because your muscles still have to produce the energy over that period of time and their hunger tension for longer periods of time so it's again it's like we touched on in the first question all of these things change the actual stimulus that's apply so that all has to be kept in context yeah and I think for the vast majority of people just getting stronger in the 6 to 15 rep range is a good idea and if you want to get potentially some of these adaptations these benefits of the kind of higher rep ranges you know do it on what we'll say to finish like people like comic finishers to their workouts and that's something I'll I'm like first especially lower body and doing like a set of or one set of all out twenty-five to thirty reps Bulgarian split squats or something like that I'm just really getting as much blurred into the muscle as you possibly can and like I like that at the end of the workout because you've already gotten stronger in this kind of six to fifteen rep range you've already given the out of tape or you've already given the stimulus to elicit those adaptations and you're effectively just getting as much fluid into the muscle at the end to work it so maybe you're getting some mitochondrial biogenesis you know maybe again some increases in vascular ization but at the very least you're getting blow it into the muscle which is providing nutrients to the muscle you've just trained you know so at the very least you're getting some sort of therapeutic benefit from those kind of higher rep ranges and being left with it a really nice pump at the end of your work age so that you know you've really worked hard in that work aid which is psychologically that's very beneficial for the continued progress of actually getting to the gym you know if you go to the gym you're like yeah I think I worked there but you didn't really get a poem you know there was no real like mind muscle connection you kind of feel like did I really do anything in that session no did it really contribute to my growth where do you come into that sessional cheese my legs they're the quiver and after that I'm really feeling that like psychologically those two different states are a lot different and that's not to say that one is better than the other and you may find that you know you do it a hard set of 25 reps you're just dosed and you're like no I hate training now I'm giving it up you know co-ops got to take that into account but you know I like the kind of higher rep stuff at the end of a workout to to finish co-workers just on on a high note and what the vast majority and I'm talking 90 plus percent of your work should be in that kind of 6 to 15 rep range yeah I like I mean it's pretty much what most like successful bodybuilders do you know if we give the example of like laughing Gannon let's say who I think is you know he's he's like a marathon remark but no luck like he's an interesting person because he actually puts in you he puts into practice and has for a long time a lot of the things that people in let's say the evidence-based community will come out and say you know oh look at this new research and like I'm all for that like I'm all for us being like yeah let's see what the research says but I also think it's important too for us to not get too detached from practice in that like you have to also look at like what are people actually doing not to say that that is high in the hierarchy of evidence but you know you see a lot of people like luck who will have periods of time where they work in like really high repetition ranges you know do more overall volume and then you'll add like a strength phase and then you like have a amount of repetition phase and like that's what I've gathered from watching news training over the years you laugh periods of time where he does really slow eccentric really story centered unconscious concentric again it's it's just that you could you could break this down to a simple heuristic of and vary your training over time for the stop and you you'd essentially get to all the answers that are in the scientific research now so it's nice to marry those two things and and and to use that to going to train to some degree so so yeah there you go and big so obviously that's all that matters next question is different than to the others but patellar tendinopathy haven't returned to training and have been resting to let it heal for three months still have some pain any recommendations so essentially what this means for people who don't know what if the teller tendinopathy is it's essentially an injury to the tendon or ligament that connects the patella or kneecap to your tibial tuberosity which is that little bumpy little nodule at the top of your table maybe I take offense to you saying little little Matic hadees is like a sword cuz he had osgood-schlatters so all spiders disease as well I just like to leave out people I have a disease actually I have two diseases biking is disease yeah go on actually I'm gonna go pee while you talk about this go ahead I have nothing to add except for maybe something that Ari and well yeah so like very simply that's essentially what we're talking about here we're talking about some sort of insult slash injury to that area embody that tendon or ligament depending on who your Anatomy teacher is you know it is technically kind of the patellar ligament Chris essentially what you're looking at is a bone to bone connection between the patella and the tibial tuberosity but where that essentially comes from that is essentially the quadriceps tendon okay so that whole quadricep tendon is running from your quadriceps muscles at the part of the thigh to the patella and then to the tibial tuberosity so that's what we're talking about here and and this isn't an uncommon injury by any means but one of the things that comes off a lot of the time we talk about tendinopathy is that people tend to assume that rest is good okay and that's kind of one of the messages we get when it comes to a lot of pain conditions is that all just rest and see how it how it how it fares you know but that's not what we tend to advised when it comes to tendinopathy so when it comes to tendinopathy tendons love Lord okay so generally one of the kind of primary areas of intervention or treatment when it comes to tendinopathy is going to be progressive loading of some sort so that might start with you know basic like really light resistance training it could be something as simple as you know a half squat let's say and eventually getting to at the end stage kind of more like say sports specific stuff if someone was involved in sports or plyometric stuff where let's say you're jumping and hopping in your you're playing that kind of stretch shortening cycle or that kind of explosive plyometric blow to the 10 okay so it has to restore release energy because that's one of the things tendons are good at so that's essentially what we get to at the end point but tendons really do like loads so it's important to lower them even though there might be a little bit of paint so that's something the tends to deter people there you there you go if you're watching the video you can see Patti's tibial tuberosity as the last of gastrocnemius gonna have calves because of feelings so I apologize but anyway and so yeah that is one of the things you're going to experience is that there is probably going to be some pain when you load the tendon there are some ways you can modify that but I would just say that it's generally like from even even like from a research perspective this has been studied and you don't you're not going to have adverse outcomes just because you don't end with some pain in general like I don't really like pain scales that much but if I had to give someone advice I would say firstly load as tolerated secondly like if you want a more specific number that works better for you like 3 to 4 on the 10 10 being the worst pain across the experience there's one a lot of people advise you know there's differing perspectives on the use of pain scales I don't think they're that useful and put take it for what you will this is generalized podcast stuff so yeah and you do need to load it there might be a little bit of pain and that is okay and generally what you're looking for is some degree of quadriceps loading so you're trying to load the knee and which could be something like like it and what you were doing in the past like if you're coming from this from a resistance training perspective then exercises like leg extension squat variations like price variations can all be useful and generally I quite like light or leg extensions just because our knee extensions whatever you want to call them just because like you know what you're doing you know as in it's there there is nothing else that can move that load except for your quad so I quite like that from a specificity perspective and also because generally in the presence of of pain it can be nice to know that you have a lot of control over the exercise you know let's say if you're doing a barbell squat and you get down to the bottom and let's say you happen to like freak out and shift on one side you don't want to have that risk of let's say the barbell falling off your back just thinking big picture here so a leg extension can be nice squat variations can still be quite good but you may need to let's say adjust the load initially you could start off but let's say 50% of the weight that you would normally use control the tempo a little bit more work you know three to four reps from failure and start there and kind of build up your build up over time as tolerated the reason I say control the tempo a bit more is because generally what generally tenants as we discussed a minute ago they tend to be responsible for that kind of you know energy storage and release so what you might find is that if you have roughly come to the bottom but you kind of spike up out of the hole you know when people kind of dive on their squats you might find you got a bit pain there but if you if you're able to control it a little bit more control the changing direction you might find that that actually allows you to train quite effectively so again it can be useful training modification but yeah essentially what we're saying is that apply some load as tolerated start with the small dose try and progress it over time don't be afraid if there's a little bit of pain and just recognize that load is actually advisable here and that you don't actually have to wait for anything to quote-unquote heal okay because one of the things we tend to see in tendon research is that sometimes what you're actually seeing in quote-unquote pathological pinions is that they actually have more healthy tissue to pipe despite having some tissue that has pathological changes so it's not it's not about letting something heal it's about you building up your capacity for Low's again so yeah that's most of what you need to know and as someone who has had essentially patellar tendinopathy like the thing that I found most beneficial was slowly loading that squat pattern bought with a lot of forward knee tracking you know basically using a very very controlled eccentric and concentric like I said she just did it on a slant board you know yeah really got that patellar tendon to stretch under load and just control that movement now obviously you have to slowly progress that like you don't just go well I'm gonna go for a slant board squat here I'm gonna load up my max quad as well you know like that's obviously not what we're talking about but like I found that very beneficial to is actually how I started ready to begin thinking about like exercise mechanics more than just like well squat for bootlegs and like I was like well why eat does my knee hurt like I you know that kind of stuff and so doing that on a slant board getting a lot of forward knee movement so that the patellar tendon is in that kind of stretched position and just slowly loading that up so something like a slant board squat like a goblet squat probably be easier to load then trying to do with a barbell as well and just slowly you could even do single leg and not go like the full full way down like that kind of a little bit of a peterson step up like deal going on so you're getting that kind of terminal knee extension and but that that made me not as beneficial for this person here but I did find getting that stretched position slowly progressing out on their load that resulted in the quickest reduction of pain and the quickest reintroduction of function and so yeah I completely endorse getting that me forward and progressing this getting stronger there yeah like look basically what you said is essentially what a lot of physios tried to do like that kind of slant board incline squat is like one of the one of the things that some people use is like a diagnostic tool and that like you want if I notice someone as a patellar tendinopathy put them on that it feels is that is the pain like specific to that area and because like you said there's so much load in that area and tend to find the people with their symptoms will be reproduced there and also it's kind of one of the exercises that people use as a gold standard than that like oh we want to get you really strong this incline squat which again like you said goes back to a lot of the exercises mechanics stuff we talked about and the parallels between rehab and training that a lot of people don't draw in that like you know you have ya physio is talking about like Oh an incline squat for for patellar tendinopathy and because it loads the knee and it helps to get the knee really strong because it's more specific but then you could also have the same physios would say don't let your knees go over your toes even though they're using it purposefully in that case so it's interesting to think about how those those things like release but yeah the next part or the next question rather setting up a treatment let's do that one last because it's a longer question yeah true as next question we've done it we've drawn to oceans and points that are relevant to this but the next question was can you grow muscle in a calorie deficit what's the deal deficit lose all your games or can you gain some muscle yeah so like when you think of a calorie deficit like traditionally what people are thinking of is losing body fat right because that's that's generally what does couch does you know it's like dude eat less food move more and you'll lose body fat right but it kind of most were just kind of forget to discussion around what happens to your muscle unless you're actually in the health and fitness world and you actually you know care about your resistance training you know your maybe your body builder or whatever but in terms of the general population the wider population most people just look the calorie deficit and look at like is my scale weight going down right like they actually don't really care if their muscle mass is going down right that's the vast majority people like if you ask your your mother your father your granny your granddad or whatever like if you eat less what happens they're like oh yeah your scale weight goes down like they have no concept of like muscle mass they just basically think of it in terms of your scale weight going down if you're in a calorie deficit right but once you start getting into this kind of stuff these are reading more in second okay actually weight preservation of muscle mass while delighting is a pretty good idea in terms of health but also in terms of the aesthetic qualities of your physique that you're you're probably trying to present by dieting you know like you want to look jacked on the beach or whatever you know so that discussion starts a further this question of okay well I'm starting in this position I'm kind of skinny fat you know I I don't have a huge amount of muscle and I have fat to lose so can I grow muscle in a deficit so you may be coming to it from that perspective as a beginner and you may be also coming to it from the perspective of I really like my training but I also have a summer holiday coming up or whatever and I wouldn't mind being leaner for it you know so we have the person who is a beginner and then we also have the person that's maybe intermediate to even advanced all right so for the beginner oh yeah you can grow most another deficit easy no problem at all like just training itself you know it's a potent anabolic stimulus so potent that you're just going to be able to grow a muscle it's not gonna be an issue for you you know now is it optimal to be in a deficit and trying to build muscle no probably not actually definitely not you know as a beginner right now basically as a beginner anything will work so this this question it's kind of irrelevant you know like as long as you're not in I don't know to 2,000 calorie deficit like a ridiculous deficit it kind of doesn't matter you know if you're injured or advanced growing muscle in a deficit certainly possible is it likely not really you know that's not to say that you know you can't do it and this is especially true if you effectively make yourself a beginner and what I mean by that is you know maybe you've been doing a lot of chest work a lot of back work a lot of leg work and then you start dieting then you notice all my shoulders aren't actually as big as I thought they were so gonna do a lot more lateral raises for example just gonna add them into my program and you're effectively a beginner shoulder trainee you know is it more likely that you're going to grow muscle in those areas yeah it's more likely because you haven't trained them before so there's a bigger potential there for growth all right but if you've set your train you know so that you're basically hitting all muscle groups effectively Treacher will say offseason or your gaining phase muscle growth while dieting not really likely you may get a small amount of muscle growth especially if you're not gonna intermediate you know maybe a couple of hundred grams here and there you know something noticeable but not like physique changing and what it's just weighing less likely than if you were a beginner and this again comes the conversation of people trying to do this kind of body recomposition it's a hundred percent possible you know where you basically lose fat and you gain muscle it's just the least time effective way of going about things you know unless you are a beginner now that's that's the kind of intermediate person if you're advanced you're probably not gonna gain anymore so if you're dieting yeah you're just you're just not unfortunately you know again you might be in the case of the intermediate where you're kind of like oh actually you know I haven't paid as much attention to my rear delts I wouldn't mind just dial in a little bit of we're putting a little bit of tension under those and then you get a small bit of growth but if you're kind of more advanced you know you're probably kind of maxed out your muscle growth or maybe you have a couple more kilos in you but you're not really going to grow that in a deficit now this is all assuming that you have been doing most things right all along you know you are eating a low protein diet and yeah you're in a surplus and then you go oh it actually I know I'm gonna I'm gonna start dieting and all of a sudden you reach this adequate or more protein in your diet is growth more like even if you're advanced yeah 100% you know you're actually giving another stimulus that you have been holding out on you know you're the protein itself is stimulus and yeah it's more likely then but again if you're doing everything pretty much right and you're like on I'm gonna start diet can I grow a muscle in the deficit for a beginner yeah intermediate yeah just unlikely advanced yeah just really unlikely yeah I think I think one of the things that happens a lot of the time when people report this is that they are coming from position where they had lots of unchecked boxes and this is especially true of kind of like the more the people you tend to see on Instagram who had like a yearly transformation because a lot of the people that you look at they're like we talked about this especially in relation to some some females in particular it's kind of like you're either on or you're off that's in like the only time you kind of train a manager nutrition is when you're trying to lose weight that's so that's one of the the problems a lot of people have run into is that they only ever really tick all the boxes when they're dieting and otherwise it's just like yeah I'll just kind of do whatever because like it's only about getting in anyway so there you go so that happens a lot of people the bodybuilders in their offseason are actually particularly guilty of this as well like they're going to their offseason and what they'll do is they're like turn themselves into like pseudo power lifters they just do like squat bench deadlift and they just kind of if they're a bit lacks a daisy about when they eat they just come eat whatever I'm just bulking like all that matters is the scales go up and they potentially go out more more alcohol which is you know catabolic and you go out more and lose sleep again catabolic see you at it you essentially take away all the things that you were doing well and then when you get back into your death to your deficit your dieting it's like one of the simplest sleeping it off not drinking anymore making better first choice eating more protein etc training more like someone who's trying to build muscle and you can have hypertrophy in that case so that's worth answering when you see those reports and I suppose on the other side of that coin in a lot of people say that it's just impossible that it's all about being an account or a surplus and some that comes from a good place in a sense in that like you can actually go into the research and read some studies for people lose muscle lean mass and essentially what they're looking at in body mass and you can interpret that as being like pure muscle loss whereas what you might actually be seeing is reductions in water weight the commons dieting we're not sure is in most of like kitchen or a job reductions in the nonfat component of animal adipose tissue because that also adds up so if you if you get a DEXA scan and you've lost body fat by virtue of losing body fat you are going to have less lean body mass so you can't just interpret that as being most Allah so that's one of the reasons some people overestimate this but there's plenty of studies that show people gaining most of the deficit even as high as like a 40 percent calorie deficit which is pretty large you know that's that's pretty significant deficit and people still tend to gain muscle once you are resistance training and eating a high-protein diet so so yeah possible but less possible and suboptimal when you are at the more advanced age for sure it's also real weird one because like there are really weird situations where you know you put such a demand on your body that you have to build muscle and effectively tap into any energy source like there's that go ID I think it's the iron cowboy he ran like 50 marathons and 50 days or some some crazy like that anyway he goes body fat index and all that kind of done and like he got down to like four percent body fat by the end of it all right you know he did she eaten through all of his body fat stores but his lean mass went up you know because he's putting himself on there's such a demand from running for so much like he's like my legs got jacked you know but this also then comes the answers the question is like oh can you build muscle from cardio and it's like yeah you can it's just again it goes back to like I'm an effective reps that we were talking about you know get the effective reps from cardio you're probably gonna have to run multiple multiple marathons you know so you can build muscle deficit it's just finally unlike yes sir and then finally probably one of the longer questions but setting up training for females what should be considered the context of this question was kind of like like if you want to add the additional context general population clients with generalist schools that was asked Instagram I believe way after you I actually don't think there's a huge difference in terms of how you would set it up for males and females in terms of overall volume like some females like I hate generalizing this kind of stuff because some females seem to be able to handle way more volume yeah the function of them being weaker cuz that's generally what you'll find for everyone like if you're weaker you're able to handle more voting or is if you're stronger you're able to handle less volume which is kind of counterintuitive so what you might think being like well I got stronger so I have to be more volume to keep progressing that's like no like you do a heavy set of squats you know for heavy sets of squats like that might be enough for you to continue growing you can help because you are so far advancing you're doing four sets of a 200 kilo squats it's like that's that's a pretty big trigger to for your body to grow you know whereas four sets of eight squats at 80 kilos is yeah triggered to grow but it's not as metabolically or neurologically disrupting as the 200 kilos you know so generally you will find women tend to be able to handle a little bit more volume that doesn't mean you have to give them more volume but what are than that the only things that are going to really change in terms of training the female is maybe putting more emphasis on the glutes again we're obviously generalizing here but more emphasis on the glutes because that's generally what they want maybe a little bit less emphasis on the quads because some females don't like having bigger cause some do you know yourself and maybe put in a little bit less emphasis on the chest and a bit more on the shoulders but then again some females don't like that kind of more will say quote-unquote masculine shoulder look you know um or not generally people say like oh you should focus more the upper fibers of the chest the clavicular portion of the chest if you're training females but even that I'm kind of like like I I don't know if it makes this huge difference like yes we do want to potentially buy a stat especially if you are a female who wants to compete because generally what you'll see is well first of all they pretty much all have fake boobs so if you're going to compete that that's almost a mandatory and it is what it is that's the sport but also what you'll see is they tend to have the upper ribs showing and I'm not depending on the Federation depending on who you're you're you're competing wish like that kind of gets marked down a little bit because they want to see some muscularity of the upper chest and also generally women don't want to see their ribs poking through their upper chest you know it doesn't allow them to wear tops like would have like you know a bigger loop in the neck you know so you could you could argue that training you'll protest a little bit more it's gonna be beneficial for females then I also just think I'm like man if you train in any way effectively for the the PEC major as a whole like you're gonna stimulate the upper fibers you know like you do a bench press and like you have an arch you know you're basically getting as much fiber recruitment as you could possibly want you know so for like I just don't think there's a huge difference in terms of how you would set training look for a male or a female apart from maybe choosing different sizes maybe choosing more coop focused exercises but in terms of volume I kind of stuff I'm like it comes down to that kind of individualized experience you know like maybe you do more volume for the glutes because that's what you want to really focus on but also I just think a lot of people just do a lot of junk volume just for the sake of doing it all I got a really good group like as we said earlier on it's like yeah like that might contribute this small amount to growth or the overall training experience but like is it making a huge difference probably not like getting strong you're in a glute bridge hip thrust a squat a deadlift like that's going to grow your glutes you don't need to do we do video in like 20 sets of boot kickbacks to get this mild pump that lasts ya half an hour but then you don't get any actual growth you know yes sir and I think like I think in the actual question again like one of the caveats that was added was like should we consider anything about the menstrual cycle and like obviously like you've written about that on site and I think like there's theoretical arguments we made for sure but I think some of them can can watch out in the real world in that like if someone was just signing off with us for coaching I'd much rather see someone get consistent with training and do something consistently over time and to have them worrying about be realizing their volume based on their period period Isaac there you go it comes up every time you did this in your Eric oh so I'm like okay that was funny when I did but yeah I'm essentially as well like period izing the training around menstrual cycle like yes you could argue theoretically I'm actually there is research to support it yeah diamond it into your cycle but again it's just for comes down to an individualized training experience then because like most most women like although they we always say 'lord 28-day cycle most women just don't have that you know so how are you gonna period eyes your training cycle if your cycle isn't consistent you know like are you just gonna be like right we're gonna keep training until we know you're a week before your period or whatever it's like this is not practical unless you have a very consistent very regular cycle you know and I would much rather just tweak training as the week's go like if you know that okay every week before I have my period my performance increases cuz that happens for some people or maybe your performance decreases you know maybe the week of your cycle or off your period you know you're kind of like oh like I just feel like crap I can't lift heavy I just have no motivation it's like okay well then like I would like to adjust this based on that feedback I don't think you can make generalised recommendations like obviously you can I just don't think they're more effective than just the general generalized recommendations you know yeah I think I think this is one of the the reasons it's so important to like when you get interested in theory you have to also stay in practice because I remember like the first time reading about all this menstrual cycle stuff thing like this is the secret you know this is gonna change the way a program for people but then like looking at let's say my current like female clients you know I could think of like most of them don't have this magic 28-day cycle like it's like yeah that's the average like that's the thing that you know you put down as like this is the mean but like what's the standard deviation there you know there's there's a there's a couple of females who have you know it's like thirty five to forty four to forty day cycles and but that's been through their whole life and that's essentially their norm at this point in time so again it's like it's like how exactly do you change it for every individual I'm not sure you can like there are some the clients of mine who find that God their appetite is just reckless on that week before their period their mood is lower they have you know decrements and training performance and for them more specific advice but again that can then change throughout the year again then because while you while you're honest gonna have it's like as you change your energy status whether you're dieting or gaining weight or you're playing sport or whatever that can affect the menstrual cycle as well and potentially the hormonal underpinnings that would be the theoretical basis for these changes in training anyway so it's really easy when you're looking at a simple graph that you know alright we're probably going to gain more muscle in the first half of the phase then the second half of the phase but once it gets into an individual individual level I would be more concerned with programming based on what client feedback is you know if you feel this for the first three weeks and feel a bit crack on the fourth week I'm happy to have a three to one kind of higher training to a little bit lower bottom than the more intensity paradigm but again if that's that's why coaching needs to be to be individual so that's that's most of it I guess yeah like there are there's so many theoretical conclusions you could come here especially ran the cardiovascular stuff on the strands of the performance stuff like if you're just looking to deal with muscle and lose fat basically doesn't matter in like it's kind of irrelevant you know like it's pretty easy to even if you feel like you know push out a set of H you know it's not too neurologically demanding it's not too metabolically demanding but yeah you might notice your strength is a little bit lower but it's still doing or an effective training session overall so I just don't think it matters too much however if you are talking about like sporting performance or you are like a power lifter and or I don't know you're doing a lot of cardio or something then yeah maybe we could argue a bit more that we need to be a bit more on top of things with this stuff because you know certain times it's likely you're gonna be like yeah my anaerobic performance is on fire you know certain glad your robic capacity is gonna be unreal certain times you know your strength is gonna be on an all-time high you feel great so you have to kinda take that into account especially if you are competing because there's not much you can do if you know you notice on your third week you feel like absolute crap and that's the week of your competition you know you're gonna have to go into things with that training and didn't do stuff in your training cycle to try to combat a combat that in whatever way possible you know maybe it is that you need to warm up longer maybe it is that you need to get more hyped up maybe it is that you need to relax more you need to kind of automate these details if you are going to be competing and you are regularly cycling female the other side of the coin is most people that are competing are not regularly selecting females because they are pushing their bodies really hard you know and this is a thing like we're talking about just the menstrual cycle in general there's a certain set of recommendations if we're talking about a mini Rhea especially if it's caused by a secondary amenorrhea especially if it's caused by a lack of energy availability overall like that's a different conversation we need to have like generally you're gonna see these people that are absolutely hammering themselves with training and they're on low calories and effectively it comes down to bringing calories back up to an adequate level and bringing training volume down to an adequate level you know if that's case men obviously how we set things up it's gonna be completely different than if we had someone that's like yeah I'm generally healthy but again this comes down to like you're effectively a quote-unquote disease population you know that that's a specific population if you have any better yet you know so you have this like that specific population like you wouldn't just go this person that had patellar tendinopathy you wouldn't just be like all right here's my general recommendations for a healthy individual we provide two leg training just jump into that you know like you wouldn't say that you're like okay well there's some extra considerations we need to have with you as an individual and that's the same when amenorrhea yeah that's a really important point because very often what people do is they extrapolate from populations that you could almost consider to have some sorts of pathology and just apply it to everyone like another good example is like reverse dieting you know like we might say to people that oh yeah you know when you're coming out of it a dieting phase and just add calories like slowly you don't take your time it's totally fine for me right now let's say that'd be perfectly appropriate advice for someone who's been a competitive bodybuilder and they've gotten down to let's say 5 6 % body fat probably wouldn't be the best advice because you want to get to a higher level of energy much quicker you want to get to at least maintenance pretty much right away because you were like technically and you can observe this and a lot of body builders it's almost a pathology you know you are pretty much putting yourself with some sort of pathological state like psychologically for sure for a lot of people and also physiologically and that your body is an extreme state and there are very real physiological changes that come with that so if you then apply that logic of like taking it from you know someone who it might be a good idea so just adding hungry calories but I apply that to the body Butler not a good situation so again context definitely matters anyway that's all my questions for today yeah and we finished we finished on that kind of menstrual cycle female specific question and when we asked for questions another message that came in was that we need a specific podcast on like the menstrual cycle female stuff so we will definitely do that but I think our plan is probably to have a guess time with all this that is that correct what do you think yeah I'm thinking about myself too although we might do an intro reputable yeah episode cover a lot of and then have a guest that'll be good and yeah and do you have anything else to add I guess I like that really is that like if you've never heard of the menstrual cycle you know a lot of guys are actually actually even some women as well some people are totally ignorant to the fact that there is this cycle of what goes on and I think like understanding the basics of it is probably useful you know even if you're a guy and you're in a relationship with a female might be worthwhile information it's also kind of a useful conversation starter if you're on a date like just tell a lot of information about her cycle I'm sure for sure she'll love that my mom's because she's like oh yes do that yeah like that's that's a really good move try that she says but yeah and you can essentially go to our website read those articles that are on site and that'll actually put you in a really good position to understand any specific podcast we then do on that topic so so yeah there you go I have nothing else crowd except we do still have coaching spaces available and we do still have obviously because it's unlimited we do still have ebooks available at the beginner ebook we're actually working on a few other ones because there is a demand like we've been asking for certain things and and they're easy for us to put out and we're gonna make some like templates for training programs and stuff because like obviously we talk a lot about a theory and training Theory nutrition theory and all that kind of stuff but like we're kind of doing with the vlogging as well like having the practical application like actually seen and in practice seeing how these things would actually play out does allow you to understand things to a much greater degree you know cuz it's all good you basically don't want to go either side of that you'd only be just all evidential experience or evidential you know want to be all just like oh this is my experience this is what I see you know it's like you don't want that and you also don't want to be the other thing where it's like oh well I read this in a book it's like you have no real-world practicality you know so you want to get obviously marry those two things and seeing us do it in the vlogs and stuff obviously helps but then also seeing it in a book like an e-book format a template that would be like this is how we would consider training for this goal or training with this many days available you know that kind of stuff like actually seen in a practical manner does help people with her overall understanding of a topic but also it gives them a plan of action so economy for the two people like if you are a coach your are training people having an understanding of okay so this is how I would set up training if a person came to me and they had X go you know or it's also for certain and it's also for the individual that's like I want to train three days per week that's all I have available to me this is my goal you know where would we start that person you know that's that's what we want to kind of provide with all those books but at the moment we do have the beginners ebook and as we said before even though it's called the beginners ebook it's not necessary just for beginners it's also for people that are more advanced because again most people come to this stuff and they learn bits this is mainly from social media these days and they don't actually ever get a I'll say proper education I wouldn't even say the e-book is a proper education but they don't ever get a sequential education like they don't actually understand the underlying principles they don't understand the the orders of importance they don't get you know the basics so even if you are more advanced you know reading the e-book the beginners ebook does really help solidify the thoughts that you have had you know and it also obviously helps you if you are training beginners you know so you can okay so that's Sarah what's that thing yeah you know any we go you do you mind guys to add um if you're trying to keep up with all this stuff and you're not you know on Instagram everyday scrolling through the triage method page it's highly recommended that you sign up to our email list we won't send you any spam one email per week just letting you know everything shared so you can catch it'll catch open it with your sunny morning coffee and also like any additional resources we found across the internet or books or whatever that we think might be useful or of interest we'll add those in there as well and then all those will be on site as well so you know Jean you also get a 10% discount in-store get if you sign up to the email list and which is quite nice well I think it's quite nice but maybe I'm biased yep there you go and yeah I've nothing else to add except carry you supposed to start blogging now aren't you yeah so I'll have a video blog up this week as well and so like 1990s I know I keep doing it like deliberately though because I'm like I don't want to be like hey look at my blog so I'm just gonna just go just want to remind people that better sure what it stands for my video blog but yeah subscribe to our YouTube channel we'd have that up there and you know not just blogs we're also going to be doing some additional kind of more specific topics that we cover there because essentially we just want to have a diverse range of sources that you guys can check out audio video text and choose your records yeah because that's kind of what we want to provide over the next while is like I know you understand like I know I like reading I know you like reading Gary but I also know that a lot of people don't like reading so I want to be able to help as many people as possible so that's what we're gonna start doing with YouTube channel as well so if you want subscribe subscribe and putting in more kind of content in terms of answering questions in a video format you know so like I was saying earlier on we're kind of moving off Instagram well I basically you don't really use Instagram except to look at beams but Gary's kind of moving off Instagram or kind of just yeah excuse me I get questions maybe from Instagram maybe from the online form whatever email them and then answer them in an actual video because that's able to help way more people than just an Instagram DM and well we obviously do want to help as many individual people as possible as we said before at the start of this episode answering a question to you in a DM and going into the MIDI is great love helping individuals but also that information could probably have helped 20 30 50 100 200 500 people you know and it's effectively lost to that one person you know he does help that one person and that's ultimately what we're trying to do but it makes more sense from our larger goal our larger kind of picture our ethos or whatever you want to call that of helping as many people as possible to actually put that content out in a easy-to-understand and consumed format you know yes sir I know that's it sure easy which really is

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